Desktop GPU Video card
Watch out for old GPU cards in a new PC for sure 2020 and newer PC's that block all older cards ,I avoid PCs that are 100% UEFI class3 mode) see why it can suck here.
Lets talk water cooling: (some GPUs' at or over 200watts love to over heat)
or the problem really is just wrong usage of video adapters (port connected inline) This is common if the new card does not do what your old monitor needs (DP card and monitor is DVI only?)
This page is not about dead PCs, because other GPU work or you i3/i5/i7 up CPU , iGPU (GPU inside CPU package)
The top reasons for failure are , hot swapping parts inside any PC (stop that now) and connecting up power to the card wrong, missing AUX power cables, missing pins on AUX or a weak PSU.
Advice on buying any GPU card:
Before buying any card read the spec. for said card first and read the bench marks too.
One of the best cards to buy is any brand of GTX1650 Turing class. (and not from China direct at 1/2 price or 1/4 price , you will get RIPPED OFF for sure)
The PC ran great before you added a new GPU card!
Most gamers are going to buy a card that supports DirectX 12 GTX640 up (newer) or Radeon R7 240 up. Some older Nvidia cards now have DX12 upgrade.(ask your 1 in 12 card makers this.?)
DX12 is backward compatible and the game decides this and forget DX9 for XP it's dead.)
Look here to see how they perform, or RTX series.
The first rules before buying any new or used GPU are: (warning some lame PCs have no x16 slot, seen on some SFF dinky PCs)
Example #1, see 2 jacks here (if seen) are never optional, some need at least 13 amps each from the PSU 2 rails that feed this card.
The top cards sold need 100 to 200watt extra power, to run the card. RTX2070 is 215watts all by itself a top gaming GPU , PRIME.
If you fail to plug in the 2 jacks below (if only one then only one needs to be plugged in) the Card goes dead or the OS BSODs. (same way a weak PSU does)
That set of AUX jacks yell, over 75watts needed for sure.
Buy only a PSU that have at least these 2 cables, or walk. (all pins must be wired up and most not be missing)
(using adaptors here can fail, like using weak PATA molex to below AUX can fail.) Buy a real PSU. (most times 100watt aux will work with adaptors above that expect failures)
the right connnector has grounds on pins 4 and 8 ! too,
Top High end GPU cards use 1 or 2 connectors , that can say handle 300watts or RX Vega at 345watts just the card for $500. with two 8 pin jacks seen here.(use a 700w PSU)
The word sense is confusing to real techs, but ATX spec :v2.92 covers remote sense (google kelvin Power Supplies) but in most cases home PC have no such PSU at all.
The fact is the GPU card senses P6 below pin 5, if missing the GPU card goes dead. or drops to lower power, on some cards (rare) Do not ignore P6 or lacking all pins wired right.
The P8 plug bottom has 3 pins that if not wired up, cause the GPU to go dead. (or lower power) Pin 6, 8 and pin 4 must be grounded, just like all NEW PSU do.
Ignore EPS AUX, this is only show to tell you, do not use this plug. and is keyed to stop you !
Some PSU (poor) have yellow pin 2 missing on AUX 6pin cable. (avoid them) a rare thing now.
Myths told by non electrical persons. The ground myth. (extra grounds are useless myth)
First off all ground wires go to one spot inside the PSU, and is USA green safety ground and the casing too. (the bottom of the PSU PCB proves that if you just looked once)
The more ground the better, as that decrease ground resistance and noise in all cases. (ohm's laws in fact) same black ground wires and yellow or more. SAME OR MORE.
Rules of power, the more yellow wires the better and more grounds , due to the fact too, all grounds go to a single point in what is called a STAR TOPO (It is a STAR ground system) Ground can never be too good. (ok?)
There really are 3 classes of PSU old to new, (12vdc rail is topic as GPU uses that for AUX) 1 real rail, or up to 3 real reals, 2 to4 virtual rails or modern high powered single raid PSU , 700w example.
ALL black grounds land on ONE single PCB bottom trace /pads, there is only one GROUND.
IN FACT every ground you add doubles the copper and lower resistance halved, from 1 wire to 2 wires, from 2 to 3 the resistance is 1/3 less. (again ohm laws are not repealed)
The fallacy is thinking that that it works just like 3 batteries, in a box. with 6 wires. ( it simple is not like that at all)
In fact the older PSU had one +12vdc rail forming a virtual 3 rails PSU, (that is only 3 current limits each rail fed from one main 12vdc VRM) See this 2 rail PSU that really is not.
Yes there were real 2 or 3 rail PSU +12v. Now history. (for sure seen on old 2010 made 700watt PSU) forget that and move on...
All new PSU are single rail, even 62 AMP.'s and all yellow wires go to a single point now just like ground always did. (lots more examples here)
Ohm's Laws: (E= I x R, E is voltage drop the enemy. R is wire resistance on topic, less is always better unless noise is your friend , it is not your PCs friend nor the GPU.
Higher gauge wire is always better and shorter runs, 16 Awg beats 18Awg. (again Ohm's laws not repealed) (AWG means American Wire Guage)
The Molex single pin is rated at 9 amp max. or near that. (no problems with that unless you wire up only 1 set of pins l, eg. 1 yellow and 1 black.)
There are. many power limits not just card rules, but PCI=express slots too
Here is a better set of drawing by PSU makers, showing the true facts on pins. The S pins (sense) are never optional, and in fact all are needed and 99.9% of all new PSU are wired correcty for any GPU.
When the GPU boots its (VBIOS firmware) then scans these 3 pins below (example 2 AUX jacks, 6P +8P) and if the pins float (means not connected) the GPU does one of 2 things.
1: GOES 100% dead. (really offline is a better word and no damage) My GTX295 card dies and glows its RED LED (power failure) Until I added my GROUND jumper wire here.(Dell lacks the 8pins)
2: Goes to lower power modes (kinda rare this, but is covered in the ATX spec on GPU)
If the card is Forset Gump brain dead? it BSOD's (dumb cards happen, but are not spec)
Facts are the GPU cards have up to 3 Power rails and are seperate and have 3 separate GPU VRM regulators. ( best site covering that is here, very good.)
A modular PSU is nice feature, and allowing less cables for better cooling and air flows inside PC.
Next is PSU jacks seen on all modern PSU , but forget floppy and no more 4 pin DVD/HDD PATA RELIC IDE power plugs.
The first 4 plugs below are PRIME now. ATX SPEC.
This is my DPS grade PSU, with removable pig tails.
The Ugly Ducklings we own: (and to avoid) SFF (or USFF) PCs, 79mm hight cards and case and weak motherboards per below.
Never buy a tiny DESK TOP PC, buy full sized cases and RTM, read the manual to make sure it has no limited at lame 25 to 50watt, PCI-e slots
Last is this very odd duck power limit horror , not full ATX 75watt spec... (that means while gaming it might BSOD'S at full speed )
That being said, my 790 MT PC runs a 200watt GPU card all day with FURMARK running. Devil be damned the slot limit. (this is because the card uses very little power off this slot and lots off the AUX jack)
Most cards fail only if gaming or the like, in 3D clocking it fast.
Learn to read the spec on your mobo, first.
25,35 and 45watt slot limits are common on tiny scale PC.\
That 35watts means GPU cards (or some USB3 cards), a 75watt GPU card might fail here as you suspect.
The toy grade MOBO has no +12vdc POWER PLANE to run the B1 power group.! They daisy chained the slot inside the mobo. (using narrow traces for power)
Power is a complex topic, static and dynamics (power = watts) and the PSU is first, it must support the currents on the power rails used.
The PCI-e slots , the B1 pin set of 5 pins in group +12vdc.
Lame duck #1 I could not make this fail at 250watt card!
Some PC /OEM /mobo makers don't tell you all PCIe has limits on power. like the nicer Dell above does.
The PCIe power spec. ATX on +12vdc is 75 watts, some PCs even go 2 times that. (works stations can and servers)
The 8-pin PCI Express connector could be mistaken with the EPS12V connector,(if you do that BOOM it blows UP) which is mainly used for powering SMP and multi-core systems ,servers.
Then there are PCs and mobo that are not truly complaint to this. (power compliance and data communications compliance are the same thing, the power limits can be wrong or ignored by the maker)
My guess is my new DSP PSU has OCP set a tad over 46amps (12vdcRail1) sorry not testing that today. (not me)
The GPU Makers are lazy dogs, if they spec'd out the card for all 3 rails, things could be easy.
If your card has 2 Aux jacks do not use a "Y" splitter, buy a PSU with 2 Aux cables.
Heat problems: (go water cooled? see next frame below)
Water cooling , Agua. Remember to call a plumber if these things leak, ($600/hr Union labor , LOL)
(Physics) Water conducts heat 22 times greater than air (at sea level)
The best way to go water is with an external water radiator seen below and is 100% silent and no fans. Sold for about $100 the money you spend here, saves a bundle not needing to buy a new PC case.
These great cooling tower RADs, move the heat 100% (of captured) out of the confines of the PC case , a best of the best idea. For extreme gaming or like usage.
Imported Air Convection cooled Radiators (I'd say nothing beats this RAD)
If water is your world?, why go less than this fanless PC.?
The do sell water cooled GPU cards. (factory made , top makers) There are 12 makers of GPU cards.
The other way cool things, is to find room inside the PC for this RAD (copper shown) (looks just like car Radiator below but smaller, for leprechauns cars?.)
Most times a new PC case is needed, and with space for this beast and pump and hoses. (read more expensive that)
The rules of Physics means that a larger Radiator, needs no fan or one that is only one large slow turning (RPM) fan (read quiet. (experiement all you want here learn what your PC needs)
This RAD needs a fan, in most cases (no pun)
The fact is the bigger RAD can have a thermal fan switch that does not turn on the fan on until near 80C? and that means silence until it is really needed.
A black RAD works better. But Copper is 2 time better than Aluminum (I have no spec on black anodized aluminum which is best for Alum, my guess is a toss up?)
The hard way to do this is seen here in the vast numbers of water cooling kits. (even cheaper if it fits your case)
(hint#1 always build your own PC and buy water cooled case with space way up top for the RAD and grill up top)
$500 Kit #1 ( EKWB) (overprices in my book)
Make sure you buy and use a fan controller (smart)
Or the imported $100 kit Just one Radiator is as cheap as $20.
One nice feature to add is a water thermometer kit.(with display) (some use a tank in the DVD bay (gone DVD) and has water temp gauge there)
Next if the GPU runs too hot is the water block kit. ( how this is done depends on your brand and model GPU card, and what it allows and what fits correctly) Best HS grease is SHIN Etsu.
One more for fun, Note the flow meter (yellow impeller)
Good luck cooling your fast PC. (some need this bad, with 250+watt GPU and 140watt CPU .
The worst case for any GPU ever is 365watts (old) that must be expelled from just 1 GPU.
TOP PITFALLS, a fast short list: (given PC runs ok on old video card or that slow base onboard iGPU (intel) but now with new card BIOS the screens are even dead..
version 8 ;;;;; 5-1-2019 , redux 1: