PnP , plug and Play (pray some say) See PCI-e slot rules.
When internet connected your PC gets all drivers from MS,'s  driver servers. (be connected or fail)
If the internet is dead, fix that first. (connecting the Ethernet port cable of this PC to your router is best and fast and easy)
If that fails we must do this work our selfs. (DIY and pray?)
You see errors in Device manager, so now you know, your PC is not fully supported by MS is it? NO!
No fear, you then go to your OEM PC maker and get the correct drivers from them based on, maker, model PC exact and what OS you run. (Windows somethings) 
If they have none ? then that is the purpose of my page.
At wits end...

The steps for good drivers are simple:
  1. Fix the ethernet port dead first or Wifi working first. (get the driver from your OEM PC makers web site matching only YOUR PC MODEL and only the OS you run (Windows 10)
  2. Now the internet is working and amazing in a few minutes all chips and ports in the PC are all working, now, as MS  and your OEM  wants it.
  3. If not go to DEVICE MANAGER NEXT (in control panel) Look for dead devices and manually update the bad driver, done. But MS removed most of this feature in release w10 v2004 up.
  4. If the PC crashes get  a new GPU (video card or chip)  driver from OEM maker , the PC maker website or from AMD or if that is what is in the GPU x16  PCI -slot.
  5. That is it most folks end at #2 and is the goal of MS and all OEM to end at #2 but some PCs fail for age or upgrades added.
  6. Age related failures are common over 10 years old PCs (2005 is the oldest PC I've seen W10 run on correctly) XP PCs are trash, time to upgrade your PC.  See my Desperate sections below:
Next is to fix them the hard way:  (first up is get the true chips real ID , called DEVICE ID's (ID means Identification)

MS fails, your OEM PC maker fails, so what now? (fails mean they have no driver)
DO NOT , google drivers now or you WILL GET A Virus infecting or malware crap.

Each DEVICE and/or a chip in the PC has  device ID code , 'indentification number code" all are different.
I avoid the next example go use HWINFO64.exe free and safe.To see your codes.

This is the super secret PCI-e DEVICE CODES , seen via properties + details. 
I click on Device manager for the failed device and I get the Device code just like this,
See failing device, right click the device and then right click Properties and tab to DETAILS.
The format is simple (maker and code)
As you can see here, code 10EC = Realtek and is their sound/audio chip. 8168 is the actual chip number.
See VEN means vendor, and DEV= device code. This is the simple and direct way,,  but see a better way below.

Next I use the database scan , you look it up that way.
Once I know these codes, I can search online everywhere for drivers to match it.
This linke below I can see if the driver is missing at MS.  In our case it is...
I first look them up here:
Using the direct MS look up manually

We can look up the chip here in the databased to see if it even exists today.

If using control panel in windows scares you are makes you feal sea sick, you are not alone.

The app below is free (true free) and 100% safe HERE: (and portable needs no install , cool or what?)

How to scan and sniff out , PCI identifications from chips. (all at once)

#1 is Hwinfo32.exe (portable)  Or 64.exe  
This is Z270prime system.  

The below I clicked (network) It is the Ethernet chip, and get the VEN = code and the DEV= code if this chip is dead or  wrong or corrupted.
SEE VEN and DEV below,? bingo!

The above facts would  then send me to my OEM PC maker and beg for this exact driver.
Failing that I then go to  makers web site, RealTEk for my driver but  they love fail fail helping home users. (first blush) (or in truth the OEM faILED you as the driver must be custom made by your OEM)

 Why are my  chips (or ports or cards or USB ) devices dead , gee they are only 10 years old.
Well they did die, and when makers die the drivers do too.  (end of the line failed )
Your only hope  is upgrade what failed. (USB dongles  or PCI-e new cards)
Learn that most  driver made for XP have no modern driver for W10,  due to DEATH of support now.

Check out the DEAD POOLS?
The top chip makers are here today.

See a   list of old defunct chip makers,

The makers of  PCs send the drivers to MS,  and if the chip makers are dead this path is broken hard dead, the PC maker then tells you sorry no W10 support on this 10 year old PC. 

HOW too Look up DEVICE CODES?:

OK now that I know my super secret codes  what can I do now, well look  it up !
PCI CODE decoding is easy try these:
The goal here is to find the true maker of said chip then what chip it is  exactly "maker real name and chip model numbers"
I do this mostly only if my ethernet chip is dead driver, and if no w10 driver exist I add a Ethernet card or USB ethernet dongle, or go Wifi. (same ways, find driver if none buy the wifi card that does work on W10)

Use these alternate database tables and look them UP now, , after you  scan , your PC and learn VEN/DEV codes seen below.  (A good place to see links to PC ID repositories is here)

The above data bases convert the codes to real makers names. and model numbers of chips.
The a common chip is  10EC chip  is a Realtek  RTL8168E, Ethernet chip. (wired networks) one of many, and I ALWAYS fix ETHERNET FIRST. (do this first and Wiki working is 100x more easy)
Realtek does not offer driver, they tell you to go to your OEM for that. (Dell , HP, Asus, ACER, Lenovo as the case my be)

But first we look at Microsoft's solutions next.  Using the VEN and DEV codes as Microsoft search below makes for faster and more accurate look up of your driver.

Microsoft's  manual  driver search engine:   This is the PnP data base at MS.  New PCs use this and no user intervention is needed, and works automatically like magic.
But if not, you can go here and find  a driver any time you want.

One can go here and search many ways. (VEN + DEV) Or just VEN code or even makers name like Nvidia.
A chipset number, or sound chip #
Here is me searching now, at and into  MS driver servers Catalogs.

If missing here now you know why DEVICE manager is so angry.

Video cards are easy,  there are 12 makers of cards , so go there and get your driver.


ver.`0:::::4-15-2017, revised 10-10-2018 ( 5/2019) even less.  and less again. v8  , less again. and w10 fixes new.(v2004 w10 is now different