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(these pages are not OEM maker PC created  nor endorsed , it is only my opinions)
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These pages cover the causes of most dead PC's. ( Laptop or Desktop (LT/DT)  
This is  pool of dead here, I cover everything there that can be dead, (no printers)
Warning if you never backup your data, maybe now is the time to act !

Guessing? ,  is ok but is very expensive with 20 modules to replace or more.

Many good folks do love to guess (It is ok !),  here is my short list that I call the "  dirty dozen reason's".
In most cases looking at any PC there are about 20 things in the group and inside that can fail at any time and do.
I will not cover virus  infected PCs of any kind but the ransom attack yes but a real virus?, just  reload the OS, fresh.
The Top 3 causes of a dead  PC are, bad batteries, (Coin cells at 7 year  mark and any battery of any kind in any Laptop,  sooner., Bad/ weak/dead HDD hard disk drive and last a dead PSU.
If the PC power rails are overloaded the PC shuts down,  and the tests to find it (14 deep) are here.
Before we go much deeper here , learn to never hot swap (plug) anything inside any PC,  ever. (or damage can be unlimited)
In this page I will attempt to cover every device type failure and feature failures in a PC that can go dead, not windows dead, but I will cover Software drivers extensively.
The first rule of  any dead PC is get the BIOS screens working first, forget Windows for now, (even remove the HDD and all USB devices see if BIOS hot keys  wake up, and the goal of seening all BIOS screens working.
Keep the USB keyboard connected and do not test the PC with any wireless keyboard now while dead PC. (wireless means battery powered)
Post errors , can can be presented in many ways, BEEP codes, flashing LED codes and  seen POST text errors to the screen. (POST IS BIOS level,  Power On Self Tests) (keep in mind newer PCs are beepless , as many folks hate beeps)
In most cases a dead PC is fully silent, no Beeps , fans dead (1 -3 fans and more) and when this happens the monitor tells you NO SIGNAL and goes to sleep, as it must lacking such video signals.
 See blink codes for POST errors (write them down and look them up in your service manual, see Dell codes here and Dell also has F12, ePSA Diagnostics !
  1. First order failure #1 is a dead Desktop monitor. (If it is dead the PC will seem dead, but is not)  See all causes of screen death here, laptops too and for sure year 2010 CCFL monitors or older. (make sure the monitor is set in the OSD to the correct port)
  2. In the same vain, the monitor set to the wrong port in its OSD menu's or the cable from monitor plugged in to the wrong PC video port, if you have a GPU card the cable goes there only, and not the mobo GPU ports now off line.
  3. The PC is dead, (if only monitor is dead see CCFL below) The PC dead is covered here first, but many find out the motherboard seems dead (see how to prove that and all evidence related)
  4. The CMOS NVRAM RTC  COIN Cell battery died  (5 to 7 year life same per battery makers datasheets) Replace it and do not put it in backwards.
  5. The HDD failures. (Hard-Disk-Drive) failed.   (this class failure also kills the OS dead and that magic F11 key dead forever)
  6. One top complaint on all PCs is the FREEZE, it slows down or stays slow or is intermittently slow or stalls.
  7. Ok one more, and that is sleep mode kills dead some devices, for sure USB devices. (or screens)
What are the biggest time wasters? ,
Check out diagnosis flow charts   (see vast charts here using image searches)
The one good charts that are correct,  I see out there are ($20 cost and 7 years old) is by Morris Rosenthal.  (the tiny dead PC  chart and the huge is here)
The dirty dozen.
  1. Window 10 upgade can fail, or you discover that  one chip/devicde  is dead or weak, like the GPU card., wifi, sound .  The cure is simple upgrade what fails, (hardware) The PC was Slammed ! and now the DEVICE DRIVERS are wrong or missing or dead.  
  2. All batteries in all PCs fail  the big laptop battery is #1 to go, then at  7year mark the RTC Coin cell dead.)
  3. There is shorted module inside the cure is here. (see the strip down tests here)
  4. The PSU is dead, do the bench test yet.? (or is the power button bad or its wires cut or its connectors fell off)
  5. The PC only needs a hard RESET.
  6. The screen is dead.
  7. The RAM sticks needs to be reSeated, in dusty places  ,the slots get dirty and needs a  blow out with can-o-air  (ram out, blow out, ram back in) RAM = DDR memory.  Learn to test the DDR RAM sticks 1 by 1, to find bad ones.
  8. Ethernet or Wifi is dead.?
  9. Windows 10 was ok of years, but  is hopelessly dead/sick or corrupted now, then do the new W10 to W10 INLINE UPDATE. Do the In_place upgrade magic. 
  10. My PC freezes.
  11. and last and surely not all, is BIOS seems dead?
All other failures near endless are covered below (I do not do printers !)

General topics: (thing to know and understand before service actions are taken)
Why LAPTOP's are so hard to repair?

How does BIOS work?, basic flows and order.

Try to know PCs are not all the same. (far from that) and vast features can be dead, 1 or more.  (if  a feature is dead, we call them DEVICES, then make sure it is not turned off in BIOS first ) if that check out ok next is Device manager "DM".
If the DM shows any device as missing , unknown or Red/yell marked bad, it is bad, the driver is missing or corrupted. (if the device is missing, wifi or bluetooth(BT), the card it self can be missing or was a non opted card day 1 new, had none.)
If you see unknown marks in DM that is a real device there and has no driver at all, we fix this first.

Try to know these  things before working on any computer:
When I touch any PC, I "Carbon-14"  Date it first (how old is it)? Age matters. (matters when getting support or not, getting parts, books, upgrades, drivers, and more...) The service manual tells me its age in most cases.
The first things to die on all PC's are those short lived things called batteries, in fact 20 times shorter life spans that the rest of the beast!
Number 2 on the short life, is a bad hard disk drives (5 to 10 years is par )
First diagnostic skills to learn are (is screen always black, no text)  and if the PC BEEPS Codes or flashes the CAP's lock key LED with a code, we always decode these first, (as they say first things, first)
  • If your PC was an Airplane,  it would have crashed long ago.  No , really. (vast single point failures are here on any PC, and zero to  no redundancy here! 
  • The old and classic: Is the  hardware or the  software failing?, we use a  Linux boot and DEMO CD/DVD or USB stick and learn that in a few minutes. (all wise techs have this in their kit)
  • Many PCs simply overheat the cure is here, and why.
  • The hardware has over 3 Billion+ transistors to fail, but in the simple realities, there are 10 -20 modules to fail, inside and outside the PC, they can go dead or worse short out ,fooling you that the the most  expensive part is bad and is not.
  • ALL PC have  PSU that will fail to turn on at all or shuts off in 16/1000th of  a second (eyeblink time) and this is OVERLOADED rails, and this magic prevents that fire thing from happening. (look ma' no fire! no smoke, no boom!)
  • The hardware can fail in 6+ ways,  dead, weak, damaged , shorted or intermittent or missing, the screens can go dead or look ugly, the power can even fail and the PC turns off by itself or will not run at all or simply overheats.
  • Software can fail in 1000s of ways, (ever get  virus?)  I do not cover Virus infections, I reload the OS fresh but I do cover bad drivers.
  • All electronics fail, not one lasts forever, but most parts in PC can last 20 to 100 years, but never the HDD or the Batteries of any type. HDD  last about 5 years,   HDD.The tests are here.
  • The the BIOS firmware flash memory  will hold its data for 100 years. (proof) (leave it alone if wise) (please ! stop flashing the BIOS ROM at every hiccup or risk bricking a good PC) 
  • The main HUGE battery  is very short lived, on Laptops, so run it with out  this battery on AC Pack, if the PC runs ok now,  then get a new battery or just run on AC power pack forever,  as anyone can surely do if they wanted.
  • The  RTC, CMOS coin cell battery dies and  can fail  in 5-7 years,  When this battery dies, BIOS goes nuts  and  the RTC , Real Time Clock calendar chip can't keep and hold the time, or date anymore)
  • The NVRAM (CMOS lasts for 100 years) it never goes bad,  but yes, the battery dead does scramble the NVRAM and this act cause BIOS to go MAD, (read CHAOS)
  • The the SSD (or M.2) , life is unknown but is huge,  and well worth owning one now for that reason and speed reasons, it has  no disk inside , no heat, silent and longer life)
  • All OLD now,  year 2010 LCD screens are dead. mostly had CCFL screen back lamp tubes, that love to fail dead as soon as 5 years old (2000 to 2010 made), (LED  screens are VASTLY better, 2010 up)
  • Do not hot swap modules inside your PC, read why and  what to do here.
  • The heatsink in any PC can fall off (clip types) and fan go dead or bad  bearings make huge noises or someone (the bad guy) put in the wrong Heat Sink ,  see  what to do here.
  • Do not replace the CPU , first.  it's the last part to fail, if ever, leave it alone, but do keep the TIM good, Thermal interface material, (thermal paste 'grease' ) fresh. (at the heat sink, CPU juncture)  Same with laptop GPU chip.
  • Learn that in fact,Intel (and AMD) has three or more, thermal protector sensors inside  all  CPU chips, micro silicon circuits, and is are super effective at protecting itself all the time from heat, and is why they last so long !. (and when hot slows down)
  • Clean the PC, not one PC lasts operated like this.( PCs of all types, will pack full of lint , and must be cleaned every year or they will overheat and fail.)
  • Learn that PC boot in a serial process order, see that here , How and why BIOS P.O.S.T's and  boots all PC's (IBM class, not others like Apple ,etc)
  • See what BSOD's mean.
  • Learn that some drivers in any HP PC work as a team,  it has not just 1 driver, to make 1 thing work ,some devices need 3 driver, working, The Camera in mine needs USB2 working and the camera driver, (2 drivers or its DEAD)
  • Do not run , none OEM driver in your PC, for exampe OEM DELL , only run there drivers in your PC, matched to model and OS version you run. (or sound will fail)
  • Learn that Microsoft did not design your PC, your OEM maker did, so ask them first ( Should be captain obvious, but ... )
  • Last with a dead black screen , do the flash light test seen here. (if in the UK the torch test, cave man style)
Most diagnosis, is all about find the cause of dead things,   the endless sea of all possible dead things and worse things shorting and confusing you easy.
I try to avoid BIT Flipping issues here for  Windows tweaking of any kind or endless VIRUS cure pages, not me. ) , MS changes Windows like , the weather does, even changes for the sake of change alone.  (or 2 times a year  majors)
But here is my Bit flip page. (non the less)
My web site pages are for mostly DEAD THINGS, I do mostly just that. (but lots and lots of testing done here too, depending on SYMPTOMS)
In most cases, 1 of 20 modules are bad in the PC (hardware) or any of 5 Ga-zillion bits inside  Windows bits (settings) flipped wrong or corrupted anything ; the OS or the drivers or the app's can corrupt. 

DEAD THINGS:  (Black screens or Windows login missing and more, lots more, here...)
This is my running list of symptoms problems , dead things , tests and cures.   
Diagnosis needs evidence, and tests to make clear smart choices, but many folks today fail at this and just guess, guessing is ok if rich, but you could just change out the cheapest parts, first working to the most costly parts (I will cover my eyes now)
Best to first focus on screens, is the screen dead?
Then are the BIOS screens all dead, did you know the BIOS screens work great (all but F11 key can fail)EVEN with the HDD and DVD drive removed ! (to be clear there is no operating system there now, with HDD removed and BIOS still works)
Is the fan dead, is the screen dead ,is BIOS screens dead or only they work , does the DVD tray drive eject?  If a Desktop?, do all 3 fans work, PSUCPU  /GPU,  (the latter is present on 1/2 the video cards made and for sure all Gaming level cards, most have a fan)
Many things can go dead for the lack of a Software driver, we call them drivers for short.  All chips and cards, and modules need a driver or  that  DEVICE,  will be dead or 1/2 dead. 
I will attempt to list everthing that can go dead (for sure a huge list on all PC made)
I will show mostly hardware failures first. I consider bad drivers, bad hardware only because the hardware is dead lacking that. (Bundle that in your mind)

OFF TRACK but related Projects:

  1. Dell Optiplex 3020  reviewed : built and modified and some secrets on PSU.
  2. Dell  Precision T3610
  3. Dell R410 server rack type.
  4. Dell R710 Video MKV server running PLEX.
  5. Building a Z600 (upgraded to 2 xeon + new SSD, + BIOS flash upgrade + more)
  6. See my Proliant DL380 G7 build Journal. (it's just for back server duty)
  7. I have a lab PC for doing tests in an  old useless Bit-Coin rack,  my Dell 790 MT open frame test jig and extensive fast video card tests.
  8. See my  RAID testing page
  9. Using my HP RAID card in  any  Alien PC or my XW4600)... (even Non  HP systems...)
  10. How to pick a RAID card.
  11. Why is my HBA dead, or make my HDD seem dead, what is an HBA?, or how to run software RAID?
  12. Why have a  home server at all?
  13. I got my HP SAS drive cage to work on any PC, even with alien raid card. (alien means non HP here) It works!
  14. Fooling around with M.2 SSD ; even booting them on older PC's., (actual cards M.2 not SATA form factor)
  15. Upgrading a Motherboard ,  diagnose a dead motherboard, h, CASE upgrades or mod's, PSU choices ,fan-heat sink choices, see all CPU heat sink problems here.
  16. Why do KVM switches love to fail? and cures for top causes. (dead eDID or DDC data pins is top cause! and classic!)

  Data backup or last chance recovery ? SEE HERE TO RECOVER DATA FIRST.

 BIOS  features and very common:   As they relate to service and maintenance and testing any PC.
Is basic Input Output system,  the lowest level of intelligence it the system is read only memory ROM or more accurately EEPROM memory. 
The newer BIOS today is called UEFI,  or DUAL BIOS, or CSM
See this first: BIOS IS OK,  lets say it can boot to any bootable USB memory stick(aka, thumb drives) or to CD boots or DVD boot disks, so BIOS is OKAY.
The top features of BIOS are: (exclusive of the new wild security of UEFI) are:
  • Lets you pick which drive or media you can boot, called boot order. (HDD, SDD, CDROM, DVD, USB memory stick and even SD card.(seen in Camera's))
  • BIOS screens work even with all drives and media are disconnected, telly you right off  the bat, the LCD screens is working ok (or monitor)
  • BIOS does not work correctly if the RTC Coin cell goes dead, (5-7 year life span says the pink bunny) 10 happens but are outliers. This battery dead scrambles the CMOS NVRAM that in itself lasts 100 years.( but not the battery)
  • IF time of  day and date can not seem to hold accurately the RTC battery is dead.
  • BIOS has a think call POST, P.O.S.T , for power on self test, and if things are bad it tells you 3 ways (possible) words in text on screen, beep codes and LED blink codes (caps lock key is popular to blink)
Old PCs can't boot from USB memory sticks (thumb drives) over decade old. 2000 to 2004 are problematic years, and before are hopeless.
See how BIOS can fail to allow USB devices to boot.
My RTC battery is sold at Walmart stores. for $2, in the camera department, CR2032 COIN.  (on Laptops with pig tail coin cells, try Ebay.)
Some Laptops a ADV7. a hidden coin cell socket just  like Desktops have, and is covered in your free service manual of your PC, at your OEM makers web site, HP.com or Dell.com etc.

After replacing the CELL battery, go in to BIOS and do a full BIOS reset to defaults. 
Voltmeter tests,  below  2.9vdc, the battery is no good now, and falling fast to DEAD.

Dim screens or stuck in sleep mode? If CCFL 2010 screen or older the back lamps are dead, or dim or dingy yellow.

The screen stuck dim or went to sleep?

Why are Laptops so hard to fix: ( (Compared to a real  ATX spec. desktop DT) 
  1. They are not standardized like wonderful desktops are via ATX spec. That means parts are all custom made and only fit this EXACT Laptop. (3 exceptions, CPU , HDD and DIMM-DDR# ram memory sticks are standardized)
  2. Desktops are more modular and I  and new cards to the PCI-express slots any time I want and near ENDLESS CHOICES and that includes a vastly better VIDEO card (like the great GTX1050)
  3. The Desk top has a standard PSU, seen here.
  4. Most Laptops have no video card and is only a soldered down , GPU chip (unlike my HP8540w with 4 video card options)
  5. Most Laptops have  VGA jack on the rear ,so you can in fact connect a monitor there when the  old CCLF LCD screen in the PC goes DEAD, as most have now.
  6. The Laptop is very hard to disassemble.  Some are extra hard, many require the whole heat sink tube and radiator assemble be removed first. (not an easy task but one can learn quickly this skill)
  7. The cheaper Asian Laptops, use snap apart cases, that if done wrong wrecks the cases. (use a pry tool, with a  Guitar pick or this real tools like this of plastic)
  8. The HP power pack is custom, but any 19vdc 100watt pack can work great on any HP LT. The pack only works on HP, not Dell or other PCs, do not use universal power packs, they do not work correctly.
  9. Some laptops have no BIOS tests and diagnosis features at all , like memory test or HDD test. (I use Linux to test the HDD)
  10. Laptops overheat way too easy (with fast processors) and love to suck in lint and clog the fan or vents so easy.    (use top brands of Heat sink grease)
  11. Most laptops do not have a Video card slot,  so that means W10 can not be loaded if W10 does not support your GPU chip or engine. Like seen here.
  12. Laptops are fragile, and are easy to damage,  for sure used in a very mobile way. The worst are super wide laptops that I call cracker thin. (horrid)
  13. Worst yet is the cracker thin laptop/notebooks/pads have no drop out battery, but instead is locked deep in side, (it don't scare me) but many folks are afraid of screws.  It loves to fail just like the big batteries do.
  14. The keyboard is also frail, finding one new for your COUNTRY code is not easy,  so just attach  a USB keyboard and type away. (Ebay.com does have them, say and original USA keyboard )
  15. The laptop needs custom drivers, to make all those custom buttons work    (wifi , or sound buttons dead)  Only your OEM has the drivers for those special buttons. (some times w10 upgrades kill dead these buttons)

The DO not list:   (do I need so say no soda drinks spilled on the key board?)
Captain obvious the PC is not water proof.
Do not open your PSU, as it has 120 to 250volts A.C. inside, if plugged in or even 1hour later with  capacitors inside charged up.
In the same vain the PC has only max 12vdc inside and is safe to humans,  but if you short it out,  sparks fly into you eye (never good results that) and you blow up devices inside the PC.
Do not run any LAPTOP on a blanket locking air vents. (in fact clean those vents often)
Do not run a PC with dead fans;  (this does not apply to super expensive silent PCs )
Do not upgrade to W7 or W10 unless HP says its ok, to do so and has matching drivers,  or it's not going to work well.  Why kill HP support? or if like me , I do  this and run what I want.
Do not listen to MS.com telling you , to upgrade, IGNORE THEM , (They got into big  trouble doing that.. bad act on W10  free upgrade saga  from H3LL)
Never hot swap internal devices or modules or cable inside your PC, of any kind, 

Never use the wrong power pack on any Laptop.(LT)  Never  use universal power packs (with a voltage switch device DC switch like, 5/7/12/24vdc)
Use the HP (example) correct voltage (19vdc) and watts (65 or more watts), try to know there can be up to 3 watts ratings  used from just one model laptop, based on CPU+GPU needs.
On my LT,  the fastest GPU and fasted i7 CPU needs the 100w supply or it fails. 
I see no problems using HP cloned power packs at Ebay.com  at all, and have used many.
If unsure? what pack to use?(ask HP they can answer you )or just  get the 100watt (or 90w) pack.  (19vdc, HP , class, 100watt)
The 65watt pack fails hard on my i7, 2010 LAPTOP , due to the silly processor then sucks 50 watts all by its self. and so does my fastest GPU chip. Oops. 100watts total !
Get the larger pack,  and it too runs cooler and lasts longer, (loafing along)
The newer laptops can have a CPU that only uses 17watts (intel)  and use very little power and 65watt packs work great.  (but not full blown gaming systems of any kind)
Do not short out anything inside you PC, nor watch the idiots on youtube.com do that. (other than just for laughs watching them...be derps)

On a Desktop do not run under powered, PSU's ever. (use same Ampere rating   or more , on every line)  200 watts is pathetic. (the PSU must match your motherboard spec +CPU choice and GPU choices or it will fail)
The $15 PSU is junk, try going to newegg.com buy a Thermaltake PSU,  for at least $39 and win.!
Do not not upgrade any PC if the newer OS does not support your very old hardware.
Lacking OEM support on media you then must use MS install media.
MS media  can work okay, if  you can dig up all the missing drivers, any and all.
The OEM may end support for install media even after 3 short years, leaving only Microsoft media or Linux.
Check HP first.  How to find a good OS install disk 

Install Media means USB memory stick installs or DVD-R. USB is faster by far. W10 can be installed USB to SSD in 30 minutes flat.

OEM PC help page links all USA and only DELL and HP the best PC's made.
Dell.com and HP.com  easy URLs no?
The service tag and all software must match this.

HP now tells everyone today it seems,  to run this Help Assistant, so  do what they say !

HP Parts Surfer ! ( tell country first) The only PC maker on earth to have such a GREAT PAGE LIKE THIS  !

Find your HP  Drivers  and Manual's are all  here.( and now deeper by age!)

The great HP Forum , ask for help there,  log in and ask ?

HP Beeps and blinks.(my list)

Dells  fabulous,  embedded Diagnostics ePSA.

Dells great  Support assistant runs on only these listed PC by Dell.

Dell Forum (click Lap/Desk or Server and join )

Dell driver + manuals support page, click Browse by products

Dell secret blink/beep error code page buried deed deep inside and not listed on your direct PC model page.

Dells now have this great Windows 10 support page showing all PCs they every made that runs on W10. (way to go DELL)

See my favorite DELL PCs here, "Optiplex" the ones that can run FAST GPU cards. (and my Dell list under cheaper PC's)

HP Secrets on DRIVER/ packs. (FAQ and facts)  

A list of all ways, drivers magically work,  to how a tech gets them the hard way.
  1. The PC came working,  day one,  and came with F11 key (2006 and newer?) to reload the OS and drivers from HP.
  2. The other way to get drivers is to let windows plug and play find them. (be internet  connected) XP this is now dead, and spring 2017, Vista is dead and it's PnP is dead.
  3. Use a  Plug and play PCI scanner "sniffer"   the scanner and fetch them directly from the maker of your dead chip.
  4. All about  the  topic of   drivers and  how to use and  learn what chips you have. 
  5. HP has your driver why not get them from HP? the files are named SP12345.exe (a fake name but formatted like this)
  6. HP has a support assistant why not run this App. from HP.

Factoids: (OS means Operating System) and why drivers fail and solutions.
  1. The driver must match your OS.  ( sure there are exceptions but never count on it or look "SUNK" like the Titanic?
  2. The chips in your PC do not work on all versions (14) of Microsoft windows. Not hardly and worse many chips are not made now.
  3. OEMs and MS all ened support for Window Version 7 and older, THIS IS THE END OF THAT. now, JAN 2020.
  4. Do not use a non OEM sound chip audio driver or that will fail. (EG; for HP use HP drivers for Dell use  Dell drivers, ok?)
  5. The makers of  vast chips do not support W7,W8, or W10 in many cases, in fact the makers can  be NO LONGER IN BUSINESS !!!
  6. Learn also when seen the Intel RST driver (raid) is now dead below chipset 100.  (that means chip set H110 up, like this.)
In some cases one can used a driver for W7 on W10, if super lucky, using W10 compatiblity mode.

I hear odd acoustic NOISES,  that is Abnormal noise?

Jargon buzz words.

LT = Laptop, DT = Desktop
PC ,  any personal computer, even 1985 to now has BIOS.
CPU the Center processing unit, (the main brain,  Alan Turing's jargon, RIP)
GPU , Graphics Process....unit.... (aka as the VIDEO chip or Graphics chip or Video card in a DT)
BIOS, basic input output system, now called UEFI (or CSM or Dual BIOS )
HDD, hard disk drive, SSD solid state drive (FAST), SSD is the best upgrade you will ever see !
CD/DVD or BluRay or ODD,   are all optical media , those old silver spinning disks we bought years ago and now your LT has no more,  these magic spinning disks.(or its optical DRIVE)
USB , universal serial bus.. you can plug in vast things here and they work like magic, (the magic of PnP )
PnP, this is Plug and Play, (pray?)  It's a system (magic) that discovers you just  connected something new, and with the help of the internet , the correct software driver is installed.
Driver, what is a driver? its the most low level chunk of software that makes all unique hardware work, for sure chips. (all hardware has a matching correct driver or it fails to function correctly or at all)
OS = Operating Systems,  be it XP (ended 3 years ago 2014) Vista (now dead  April 11, 2017 ) W7, W8 or W10 or LINUX.  (avoid XP it is, in fact, a virus magnet from H3LL)
CMOS - this is special memory that does not forget, if the 3v CMOS battery is good and is the memory storage for all BIOS data, parameters, you setup,  and if you pull said battery , the BIOS forgets what to boot from , not a wise idea pulling it (unless you learn how to use BIOS)
PSU is  a power supply unit in any desktop.,  The LT has an external power pack , mine is just 19vdc power, 100watts. do not guess the watts, use the correct voltage and watts  or more watts and win. (your HP, service manual tells you the correct power to use)
DC direct current as in Volts.  measure the volts in its pins, with a tool called a voltmeter(or DMM). end guessing. Tool costs $20 at Walmart. (On a LT check for 19vdc. on a desk top check all listed pin voltages , listed on this sticker on said PSU.
MOBO = slang for motherboard.  That huge green card filling the base of the LT case.
TIM - Thermal Interface material
Heat sink, that large finned metal thing on top of large CHIP, that may have a fan too. (as most CPUs do) See all heat sink problems here.
Heat sink thermal interface material or  compound (TIM) )
Heat sink grease, see  TIM above. (or heat sink compound)
WVGA-, Video Graphics adapter, seen on rear of LT to use  any DT external screens. (mine has HDMI port tool for connection to a TV) also used for a projection system .
LCD-  a liquid crystal Display, either old CCFL back lighted, or modern LED back lighted. The former loves to fail.
Chip- = gross slang for , fully integrated circuits of any kind from 1970s to now.  At vast different levels of complexity.  Open up your PC see that MOBO, see all those chips, bingo. chips. (square-ish and black, and flat)
SMD - Surface mounted devices.  & SMT , surface mounting Technology.
A SMD- security chip is a chip (tiny) called TPM chip that holds the BIOS password.
SOC = System on a CHIP ( CPU and vast other chips extra not needed now)
Backup-., is the process and goal of having your precious data copied somewhere but "NOT HERE."  (not this dead PC) Know that all hard drives do fail, and that a virus can block all files in your Windows documents folders...or erase them...
There is no life time HDD made. (some can go 10 years as seen in high end servers)
BOOT, (short for boot strap) means pulling yourself up by your boot straps.  The CPU by itself is brick stupid and dumb, it can't do any thing at all by itself, but can JUMP (jmp instruction hard coded this) and does so the the BIOS starting point in memory.  BIOS then brings the system online.  (called booting up and is a SERIAL STEP BY STEP PROCESS) From IBM day one , 1981 to now. (even or old CPM computers did the same , older)
OMGGW = Oh my golly gee wiz?
IDK, I don't know or have  clue, or don't care to use that. (Chrome is that) I boycott google so.... what can I say.

GOOD LUCK fixing your PC !    

This site is free of all spying or any kind , no binary code or scripts here ever. (but some links to the most safe I can find)  This site is also free of paid pro web publishers, just some lazy dim bulbs rantings.
No spying , spam , scripts or any tracking here, no machine codes here. No begging here, no donations asked nor accepted. 100% fat/sugar/gluten free. 100% Politics free.
The only scripts here is the free find script to allow searching, a very important feature of any website,  (I can't cross link everything so... this works great) the Free find uses fuzzy logic too, so finds things even spelled wrong)
Zero exploitation here, (just text , links and photos only) We do not guarantee what you find on other 1billion now, websites, ever, nor is that possible !   This also means every page on this domain, same statement here.

My favorite Program Applications are: (I do not get paid to say any of this, ever!)

RANSOM ATTACKS 101: Short and simple cures. (and preventions) Firefox has a safemode run feature that works ! Do not use Edge or IE11 or older, they do stink here. Chrome, IDK sorry.
First is do not believe the bandits, lies, you can stop and block them. (now, this instant)
DO NOT  PANIC, do that PAY CASH  to RANSOM JERKS that do this, ever!
Just do this... (sure the X button is  dead in your buggy  Browser, sure and now the browser has been Hijacked)

The only hard part is I do not know which of 8 browsers you use. (best answer is Firefox new, I will call that FF below and FF is free.)

If you get attacked using any Browser, (I use Firefox ,v68+ BEST!)
Do the 3 finger salute (control + alt + Delete) keys at once, and pick TASK  Manager (TM), and tab processes,  then right click your browser and pick end task,  bingo the attack is now ended. (works for IE, and Firefox and others)
If not able to do the above TM?, (it is also an infected PC, that is problem #2 )
Do this:

All you do is force the PC off by holding the power button for 10seconds, see the PC does turn off fast, if not pull the wall AC power cord and if a laptop pull it's battery too. (later or now, set BIOS settings so button = power off)
Next :  ( turn the PC back on, using power, sources above replaced)
Rule1 do not re-RUN your browser , first reset it per below;

Then reboot  and run  Free CCLeaner next, do not skip this part.
I next run Firefox FF (9%) , in  safe mode, by holding the Shift key while clicking the desktop FF short cut, and pick start safe mode.
Then in FF properties/settings,  make sure your home page is where you want it to be not the RANSOMWARE  JACKASS  page.  then delete all add ons, not wanted by you. (that's just 4 steps there,  and now FF is back to normal)
In the case of other browsers: (the xx% is market share 2019)
Chrome (67%) is more difficult to run safe mode and no hotkey,  (sadly) I'd avoid Chrome until they GET their bad ACT TOGETHER. (no HOT key is BAD programming) and the below same advice!
Microsoft IE11 internet exploder (12%),  see here: (wow! some websites now ban IE11 as it had already IE1 to 10.)
Microsoft's ugly? Edge, nobody use this but see below:.  I delete all ICONS marked EDGE, but here is the reset. (Edge may be more secure, but nobody likes using it, it is so alien like ) why EDGE, stinks.
For Edge, do this, click left win key and X at the same time. and click, App.'s and features, then click Edge and last the RESET button there.
Once back in control run all A/V (even online scans) run many anti virus scans on you PC, and malwarebytes linked above. (go to Microsoft.com and read how to run SFC, system file checker)

In my OPINION no  Browser ever should  allow any website to take over YOUR browser (X) click icon  ever, or its controls . (or the least a setting called (block key take overs )of any kind)
Nor should the Alt +F4 key be dead, (means kills this task)
This is totally unacceptable and shows the makers very poor design. (for example the top right corner of the page, X button must always work) (why they find this too hard to do escapes me)

Prevention: (Windows 10 64bit v1909  or newer or Linux.  Do not run any older OS ever again.
Use Firefox v73 up.
(even run Adblock and run Privacy Badger,  extensions)
If you get attacked, just  do control + alt + Delete) and click task manager, and shut down FF,  then restart FF using shift key, and bingo take over is GONE. (be safer and clear history and cookies)

V32 ,,,,,10-9-2017 , 8-13-2019 last edit   I recommend  this Domain hosting service. INTERSERVER.net

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